The user of the computer is requested to identify the functional layout of the keyboard when installing or customizing the operating system. In fact, the mechanical layouts referred such as "ISO" and "ANSI" comply to the primary recommendations in the named standards, while each of these standards in fact also allows the other way. Keyboard layout in this sense may refer either to this broad categorization or to finer distinctions within these categories.
A Visual layout refers to the symbols printed on the physical keycaps. Visual layouts vary by language, country, and user preference, and any one mechanical and functional layout can be employed with a number of different visual layouts. For example, the "ISO" keyboard layout is used throughout Europe, but typical French, German, and UK variants of mechanically identical keyboards appear different because they bear different legends on their keys.
Even blank keyboards — with no legends — are sometimes used to learn typing skills or by user preference. Some users choose to attach custom labels on top of their keycaps. This can be e. The functional layout of the keyboard refers to the mapping between the physical keys, such as the A key, and software events, such as the letter "A" appearing on the screen. Usually the functional layout is set to match the visual layout of the keyboard being used, so that pressing a key will produce the expected result, corresponding to the legends on the keyboard.
However, most operating systems have software that allow the user to easily switch between functional layouts, such as the language bar in Microsoft Windows. For example, a user with a Swedish keyboard who wishes to type more easily in German may switch to a functional layout intended for German — without regard to key markings — just as a Dvorak touch typist may choose a Dvorak layout regardless of the visual layout of the keyboard used. Functional layouts can be redefined or customized within the operating system, by reconfiguring operating system keyboard driver, or with a use of a separate software application.
Transliteration is one example of that whereby letters in other language get matched to visible Latin letters on the keyboard by the way they sound. Thus, a touch typist can type various foreign languages with a visible English-language keyboard only. Mixed hardware-to-software keyboard extensions exist to overcome above discrepancies between functional and visual layouts.
A keyboard overlay  is a plastic or paper masks that can be placed over the empty space between the keys, providing the user with the functional use of various keys. Alternatively, a user applies keyboard stickers with an extra imprinted language alphabet and adds another keyboard layout via language support options in the operating system. In the past, complex software that mapped many non-standard functions to the keys such as a flight simulator would be shipped with a "keyboard overlay", a large sheet of paper with pre-cut holes matching the key layout of a particular model of computer.
When placed over the keyboard, the overlay provided a quick visual reference as to what each key's new function was, without blocking the keys or permanently modifying their appearance. The overlay was often made from good-quality laminated paper and was designed to fold up and fit in the game's packaging when not in use. The U. In an operating system configured for a non-English language, the keys are placed differently.
Using a keyboard for alternative languages leads to a conflict: the image on the key does not correspond to the character. In such cases, each new language may require an additional label on the key, because the standard keyboard layouts do not even share similar characters of different languages. The United States keyboard layout is used as default in the currently most popular operating systems: MS Windows , [ citation needed ] Apple macOS [ citation needed ] and some Linux distributions. Most operating systems allow switching between functional keyboard layouts, using a key combination involving register keys that are not used for normal operations e.
Phonetic keyboard layout - WikiVisually
There are keyboards with two parallel sets of characters labeled on the keys, representing alternate alphabets or scripts. It is also possible to add a second set of characters to a keyboard with keyboard stickers manufactured by third parties. Modern keyboard models contain a set number of total keys according to their given standard, described as , , etc. This number is not always followed, and individual keys or whole sections are commonly skipped for the sake of compactness or user preference.
The most common choice is to not include the numpad, which can usually be fully replaced by the alphanumeric section. Laptops and wireless peripherals often lack duplicate keys and ones seldom used. Function- and arrow keys are nearly always present. Although there are a large number of keyboard layouts used for languages written with Latin-script alphabets , most of these layouts are quite similar. They can be divided into three main families according to where the Q , A , Z , M , and Y keys are placed on the keyboard. These are usually named after the first six letters.
While the core of the keyboard, the alphabetic section, remains fairly constant, and the numbers from 1—9 are almost invariably on the top row, keyboards differ vastly in:. On a UK keyboard this key combination generates the double-quote character, and UK keyboards are so engraved. In the keyboard charts listed below, the primary letters or characters available with each alphanumeric key are often shown in black in the left half of the key, whereas characters accessed using the AltGr key appear in blue in the right half of the corresponding key.
Symbols representing dead keys usually appear in red. By far the most widespread layout in use, and the only one that is not confined to a particular geographical area. It is supported by Microsoft Windows. It is supported by Microsoft Windows Vista and later only. These are designed to reduce finger movement and are claimed by some proponents to offer higher typing speed along with ergonomic benefits. There are also numerous adaptations for languages other than English, and single-handed variants. Dvorak's original layout had the numerals rearranged, but the present-day layout has them in numerical order.
The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard has numerous properties designed to increase typing speed, decrease errors, and increase comfort. The Dvorak Simplified Keyboard is available out-of-the-box on most operating systems , making switching through software very easy. The Colemak layout is another popular alternative to the standard QWERTY layout, offering a more familiar change for users already accustomed to the standard layout.
It shares several design goals with the Dvorak layout, such as minimizing finger path distance and making heavy use of the home row.
A program to install the layout is available for Microsoft Windows , as well as a portable AutoHotKey implementation. The Workman layout employs a hypothesis about the preferential movement of each finger rather than categorically considering the lowest letter row to be least accessible. Specifically, the index finger prefers to curl inwards rather than stretch outwards. So for the index finger, the position of second preference goes to the bottom row rather than the top row.
Contrarily, the middle and ring fingers are relatively long and prefer to stretch out rather than curl in. Based on this, weighting is allotted to each key specifically rather than each row generically. Another principle applied is that it is more natural and less effort to curl in or stretch out fingers rather than rotate one's wrist inwards or outwards. Workman also balances the load quite evenly between both hands. The Workman layout is found to achieve overall less travel distance of the fingers for the English language than even Colemak.
There are many other layouts for English, each developed with differing basic principles. The CarpalX study [ clarification needed ] lists many of these alternatives and analyses their relative strengths based on certain parameters.damigxipe.tk
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The Norman Layout, like Workman, deprioritizes the central columns but gives more load to the right hand with the assumption that the right hand is more capable than the left. Other layouts lay importance on minimal key deviation from QWERTY to give a reasonable increase in typing speed and ergonomics with minimal relearning of keys. The Qwpr layout is also designed for programmers and multilingual users, as it uses Caps Lock as a "punctuation shift", offering quicker access to ASCII symbols and arrow keys, as well as to 15 dead keys for typing hundreds of different glyphs such as accented characters, mathematical symbols, or emoji.
The patent was granted in The layout is right-hand biased with both the vowels and many of the most common consonants on the right side of the layout. The layout has the advantage of having punctuation marks on Latin and Cyrillic layouts mapped on the same keys. The Neo layout is an optimized German keyboard layout developed in by the Neo Users Group,  supporting nearly all Latin-based alphabets, including the International Phonetic Alphabet ,  the Vietnamese language and some African languages. The positions of the letters are not only optimized for German letter frequency, but also for typical groups of two or three letters.
English is considered a major target as well. The design tries to enforce the alternating usage of both hands to increase typing speed. It is based on ideas from de-ergo and other ergonomic layouts. The high frequency keys are placed in the home row. The current layout Neo 2. Neo uses a total of six layers with the following general use:  .
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It is based on ideas from the Dvorak and other ergonomic layouts. Typing with it is usually easier due to the high frequency keys being in the home row. Typing tutors exist to ease the transition. During its design, letter frequencies in the Turkish language were investigated with the aid of Turkish Language Association. These statistics were then combined with studies on bone and muscle anatomy of the fingers to design the Turkish F-keyboard Turkish : F klavye.
With this scientific preparation, Turkey has broken 14 world records in typewriting championships between and The Malt layout—named for its inventor, South African-born Lilian Malt—is best known for its use on molded, ergonomic Maltron keyboards. Nevertheless, it has been adapted as well for flat keyboards, with a compromise involved: a flat keyboard has a single, wide space-bar, rather than a space button as on Maltron keyboards, so the E key was moved to the bottom row. Archived September 22, , at the Wayback Machine.
The Blickensderfer typewriter , designed by George Canfield Blickensderfer in , was known for its novel keyboard layout, its interchangeable font, and its suitability for travel. The Blickensderfer keyboard had three banks rows of keys , with special characters being entered using a separate Shift key; the home row was, uniquely, the bottom one i. A computer or standard typewriter keyboard, on the other hand, has four banks of keys, with home row being second from bottom.
To fit on a Sholes-patterned typewriter or computer keyboard, the Blickensderfer layout was modified by Nick Matavka in , and released for both Mac OS X and Windows. To accommodate the differences between Blickensderfer and Sholes keyboards not the layouts, but the keyboards themselves , the order of the rows was changed and special characters were given their own keys.
The keyboard drivers created by Nick Matavka for the modified Blickensderfer layout nicknamed the 'Blick' have several variations, including one that includes the option of switching between Blick and another keyboard layout and one that is internationalised, allowing the entry of diacritics. A few companies offer "ABC" alphabetical layout keyboards. Chorded keyboards , such as the Stenotype and Velotype , allow letters and words to be entered using combinations of keys in a single stroke.
Users of stenotype machines regularly reach rates of words per minute . These systems are commonly used for real-time transcription by court reporters and in live closed captioning systems. Ordinary keyboards may be adapted for this purpose using Plover. However, due to hardware constraints, chording three or more keys may not work as expected.